The fabric is an interweaving of two mutually perpendicular systems of threads. Modern industrial production of fabrics is a complex technological process consisting of several stages.
The creation of fabric on a loom is called weaving, but before proceeding with it, preparatory work is done.
All threads, except for silk, are sized before weaving, that is, a thin adhesive layer is applied to them, it increases the adhesion between the threads, which makes the fabric stronger and the threads smoother. This makes it easier for them to move in the loom.
The horizontal system of threads of the fabric is called the main, vertical weft. In preparation for weaving, the so-called base parting is performed, that is, threading the warp threads into special holes in the weaving machine, in addition, the warp threads are wound on a special roller - a beam.
After the preparatory work is completed, the weaving process begins. The warp threads are gradually transferred from the beam to the machine, while maintaining their strong tension. With the help of special devices of the machine - heddle - the warp threads can be raised and lowered independently of each other. Between the raised and lowered warp threads, a shed is formed, into which the shuttle passes with the weft thread inserted into it. Thus, the weave of the warp and weft threads is created.
Depending on how the hedges raise and lower the warp threads, a certain type of weave is formed: plain, satin, twill and others, the appearance and texture of the fabric depend on the type of weave.
The fabric removed from the machine is called harsh, it must be subjected to various finishing operations in order for the process of its creation to be completed. There are many different types of finishes that are applied to fabrics, depending on what raw materials they are made from, what texture they have, what performance the manufacturer wants to give it. The main types of fabric finishing are dyeing, printing, bleaching, mercerizing, calendering.