The nature of the climate in every part of the globe is formed under the influence of many different factors, such as the level of heat and humidity, the direction of air masses. Territories with similar climatic conditions are vast, they are conventionally combined into zones - climatic zones of the Earth.
Most states are located within any one climatic zone. The territory of Russia is so large that several climatic zones can be observed in its vastness.
Only the tropical and equatorial climatic zones are not represented on the territory of Russia.
The Arctic climate zone covers the coast of the Arctic Ocean and nearby islands. It is the coldest climatic zone in Russia. The Arctic climate is characterized by low winter - up to minus 35 degrees, and summer - no higher than plus five degrees of temperature. Very little heat enters here, and during the long polar night it does not come at all. Warm air masses entering the Arctic zone in the summer make it possible to partially melt the ice and snow cover, warm up the air coming from the ocean to positive temperatures.
The subarctic climatic zone covers Western Siberia and northeastern Russia. Here winters are milder - the average winter temperature here is about 18 degrees below zero. Summer is longer, which allows the air to warm up to 10 degrees Celsius.
The European part of Russia, as well as the Far East, Western and Eastern Siberia are located in a temperate climatic zone. The climate of the temperate zone is very diverse both throughout the year and depending on the geographical position from west to east. That is why the temperate climatic zone is additionally divided into conditional climatic zones: continental, temperate continental, sharply continental, monsoon. In all zones, there is a rather sharp change in weather conditions depending on the season.
Temperate climatic zones
The temperate continental climate is characterized by hot summers and frosty winters. Temperature fluctuations in this part of the belt are observed in the range from minus 30 to plus 30 degrees. In the continental zone, the climate is a little more even, here very often there is a mixing of tropical and arctic air masses, which provokes a fairly high level of precipitation both in summer and in winter.
The sharply continental zone has the lowest precipitation in the temperate zone. Here seasonal differences in weather conditions are most pronounced: winters are very cold, summers are hot.
Taiga is located in the sharply continental zone.
A characteristic feature of the monsoon zone of the temperate belt is the high mobility of air masses, which results in strong winds - monsoons, sometimes provoking the formation of typhoons and the occurrence of floods. The climate in this zone is very humid, with cool summers and low - up to 40 degrees below zero - winter temperatures.