The territory of Canada combines several climatic zones from the lush vegetation of the western coast of British Columbia to the northern eternal ice. Throughout the country, four seasons are well traced, but, despite this, the conditions are very diverse and are determined by the type of landscape.
The territory of Canada is divided by two climatic zones: arctic and subarctic. More than half of the area has an average annual temperature below 0 degrees Celsius. Only the southern regions are suitable for permanent residence of people.
Features of climatic zones
The Subarctic climate zone is the closest transition zone on Earth. Throughout the year, arctic and temperate air masses replace each other on its territory. Located in the Northern Hemisphere, in addition to Northern Canada, it determined the climate of Alaska in America, southern Greenland, northern Iceland, the Far East and Central Siberia. In the Southern Hemisphere, it includes the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula.
The zone is mainly occupied by forest-tundra and tundra. Short summers with temperatures that do not rise above 20 degrees Celsius. Small areas in Canada do not have time to warm up in the cold circumpolar summer, therefore they belong to permafrost regions.
The arrival of the Arctic air mass lowers the thermometer below zero and keeps it in this position for most of the year. The amount of precipitation varies from 520 to 120 mm. However, low evaporation triggers the waterlogging process.
Due to the harsh climate, these parts of Canada are unsuitable for living, and difficulties arise with the construction of housing. The short summer and the conditions of the polar night have a negative effect on the human body.
Canada is a land of climatic contrasts
In that part of the country that is densely populated, the continental, temperate and subtropical marine type of climate prevails. In January, in central Canada, temperatures rarely drop below -22 degrees Celsius, and in July, the thermometer shows from 24 to 26 degrees above zero. In total, no more than 600 mm of precipitation falls per year. Between Edmonton and the eastern slopes of the Cordillera, the climate is determined by the height of the area, but it is drier than the central part. Going to Ottawa, you should be prepared for hot rainy summers and mild wet winters.
The Pacific and Atlantic coasts have a temperate maritime climate with mild winters and cool summers. The climate near Vancouver shares similarities with the subtropical maritime climate. Even in January, the air temperature does not drop below 0, and the amount of precipitation often overcomes the threshold of 5000 mm.