"Love for wisdom" - this is how the word "philosophy" is translated from the Greek language. Famous thinkers of all times tried to know the world around and human consciousness, creating their own system of views. In the history of the existence of mankind, many names of philosophers have survived, whose teachings reflected the laws of nature and society.
More than two and a half millennia ago, a mindset was born that contradicted the views of traditional mythology. Greece is considered to be the birthplace of philosophy, but new forms of worldview arose in India, China, Ancient Rome and Egypt.
The first wise men appeared in Ancient Hellas even before the onset of a new era. Philosophy as a science begins with the name of Socrates. Parmenides and Heraclitus belong to the ancient Greek pre-Socratic thinkers who were interested in the laws of the existence of life.
Heraclitus created philosophical teachings about the state and morals, soul and gods, law and opposites. It is believed that the well-known phrase "Everything flows, everything changes" belongs to him. Reliable sources contain very short information about the life of the sage: Heraclitus left the people in the mountains, because he hated them, and lived there alone, so he had no students and "listeners". The writings of the ancient Greek philosopher were used by subsequent generations of thinkers, which include Socrates, Aristotle, Plato.
The works of Plato and Xenophon tell about the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates and his teachings, since the sage himself did not leave any works. Preaching in the squares and streets of Athens, Socrates strove to educate the younger generation and opposed the main intellectuals of that time - the sophists. On charges of corrupting young people in a different way from the generally accepted spirit, in the introduction of new Greek deities, the philosopher was executed (forcibly took poison).
Socrates was not satisfied with the ancient philosophy of nature, therefore the objects of his observations were human consciousness and thinking. Socrates replaced the naive veneration by people of a large number of gods with the doctrine that the surrounding life moves towards a predetermined goal under the control of forces that expediently direct it (a similar philosophy about providence and providence is called teleology). For a philosopher, there was no contradiction between behavior and reason.
Socrates is the educator of many future founders of philosophical schools. He criticized any form of government if they violated the laws of justice.
The disciple of Socrates Plato considered things to be a likeness and reflection of ideas through love for which spiritual ascent is accomplished. He was convinced of the need to educate people, paid attention to the origin of the state and law.
According to Plato, the ideal state should exist on the hierarchy of the three estates included in it: wise rulers, soldiers and officials, artisans and peasants. Justice in the soul of a person and in the state occurs in the case of a harmonious coexistence of the main principles of the soul (lust, fervor and prudence) with human virtues (sanity, courage and wisdom).
In philosophical reflections, Plato spoke in detail about the upbringing of a person from infancy, thought out in detail the system of punishments, denying any personal initiative that was contrary to the law.
The views on the teachings of this ancient Greek philosopher have changed over time. In antiquity, Plato was called a "divine teacher", in the Middle Ages - the predecessor of the worldview of Christianity, the Renaissance saw him as a political utopian and preacher of ideal love.
Aristotle, scientist and philosopher, was the founder of the ancient Greek Lyceum, educator of the famous Alexander the Great.After living in Athens for twenty years, Aristotle listened to the lectures of the famous sage Plato, diligently studied his works. Despite the divergence of views, causing controversy between teacher and student in the future, Aristotle was respectful of Plato.
The philosopher was notable for his small stature, was burr and shortsighted, with a sarcastic smile on his lips. Coldness and mockery, witty and often sarcastic speech of Aristotle gave reason to have many ill-wishers among the Greeks, they did not like him. But there are still works that testify to a person who sincerely loved the truth, accurately understood the reality around him, tirelessly sought to collect and soberly systematize factual material. In the person of Aristotle, Greek philosophy changed: mature prudence took the place of ideal enthusiasm.
The philosophical thought of the Middle Ages, basically, consisted of a statement and interpretation of existing beliefs. Medieval philosophers tried to find out the relationship in the life of God and man. Moreover, in this historical period, the mind of faith used the dominant right - dissenting people appeared before the court of the Inquisition. A striking example is the Italian monk, scientist and philosopher Giordano Bruno.
In the XV-XVI centuries. (Renaissance) the center of attention of thinkers was the man-creator of the world. Art occupied an important place during this period. The great people of the era (Dante, Shakespeare, Montaigne, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci) proclaimed humanistic views with their creativity, and the thinkers Campanella, Machiavelli, More, in their projects of an ideal state, were guided by a new social class - the bourgeoisie.
In modern times, the main purpose of philosophy is to serve a science capable of improving human life. Famous thinkers were interested in the main methods of human cognition of the surrounding world. Philosophy served as the support of the natural sciences (an example is the works of Descartes and Bacon).
Germany is the birthplace of many philosophers: Kant, Hegel, Feuerbach and many others. It was there in the middle of the 19th century. Marxist philosophy was born (the founder was Karl Marx), based on materialistic views on the historical process and the modern understanding of the existing bourgeois society.
Schopegauer, Nietzsche, in their own way, drew conclusions about the shadow sides of life and progress, putting human passions and instincts in the first place, and not reason.
Questions of interest to all previous generations of thinkers are objects for the study of modern philosophy.