Cylindrical parts that can rotate in both directions are called a spindle. Usually they are used in machine tools and turning devices for fixing workpieces, or as an independent element of a turning device.
A spindle is a spindle - Spindel. Indeed, the shafts that are installed in modern equipment for transmitting torque very much resemble a spindle rotating around its own axis. Such a shaft is used to a greater extent in metalworking on metal-cutting machines.
A spindle is installed on the headstock of the lathe, at the end of which a collet is attached, which serves to clamp the workpiece to be processed. A spindle is installed on the tailstock of the lathe to clamp the tool. Both spindles have a rotational movement, both to the left and to the right.
The spindle of the tailstock of the lathe has a tapered hole in which the cutting tool is secured. In modern metalworking machines, spindles are installed with the ability to mount one or two cutting tools.
Spindles are manufactured with increased precision, given that the rotary motion requires precision in order to process the part evenly.
A support with a lathe tailstock spindle is brought to the rotating spindle with a clamped workpiece. Such machining of a part requires increased precision in the manufacture and installation of shafts, therefore the spindles are mounted on plain or rolling bearings with a high accuracy class.
For the installation of modern spindles, high-precision ceramic or metal bearings are used, which do not require additional lubrication.
If the manufacturing technology of the part requires a change of different cutting tools, then a spindle with quick-change tool chucks is installed on the machine, and a "spindle" with an automatic tool change is installed on the most modern metal-cutting machines.
In the milling or drilling group of machines, as well as on aggregate and boring machines, the spindle has a manual or mechanical drive, with the help of which the shaft is set to the required length.
Obviously, a device that is designed for long-term rotation with loads requires special conditions and materials of manufacture. Thus, modern shafts are made of a refractory material with a high coefficient of resistance.
According to the speed characteristics, the spindles can be high-speed or low-speed, and according to the type of operation, they can be cooled either by liquid or air. High speed shafts used for grinding are capable of transmitting torque at 60,000 rpm, low speed shafts up to 12,000.