Intonation in linguistics is a rhythmic-melodic structure of speech, an alternation of rises and falls in tone when pronouncing. The ability to use intonational constructions correctly can be useful in everyday or formal communication situations. Controlling the tone and tempo of speech is important when building a model of speech behavior. Intonation plays a huge role in the observance of the rules of speech behavior.
How to use intonation
There are seven types of intonation structures in the Russian language. Each of them is used in speech to express different shades of feelings and emotions. Intonation can change the meaning of a word or utterance.
Intonation construction 1
Scheme of intonation structure –– –– __. At the end of a sentence, the voice drops. This intonation is used in everyday speech. Used when expressing completeness: I came home. Today the sun is outside.
Intonation construction 2
Scheme of intonation structure –– -__ __. The intonation structure is used when asking questions: Who is this? Where did you go? What kind of person is he? It is always used together with the interrogative word. With the help of IK-2, you can express a requirement: Close the window! Bring the dictionary!
Intonation construction 3
Scheme of intonation structure –– –– / __. This type of intonation construction is most often used when expressing a question without an interrogative word: Have you eaten? It will rain tomorrow? May indicate a request: Bring a book, please. Take the phone. If IK-3 is used with words like this, such, here, then the speaker expresses an assessment: He is so smart! This is how you do it!
Intonation structure 4
Scheme of intonation structure –– ––. When it is necessary to ask a question with a comparative word a, we use IK-4: Will you go to the cinema? And tomorrow? IR-4 is used in questions with a tinge of demand in an official speech: your ticket?
Intonation construction 5
The scheme of the intonation structure is –– / __. This intonation construction differs from others, as it has two centers. It is used in emotionally expressive speech when expressing a quantitative or qualitative assessment: What is the weather today! What a wonderful voice he has! I haven't been there for a whole year!
Intonation construction 6
The scheme of intonation construction –– /. Used most often in an artistic style to express incompleteness with a touch of elation and solemnity: Snow this year! Sea!
Intonation construction 7
Scheme of intonation structure –– –– /. This intonation construction is often used when one wants to reinforce a negative assessment. It is actively used in colloquial speech in order to diversify speech activity. Statements from IK-7 have an ironic connotation: What an artist he is! (Bad artist). Where he was! (Has not been anywhere).
The tone, timbre and pitch of the voice play an important role in the intonation design of speech. Fast paced and high-pitched voice annoys the listener. If you want to be listened to carefully, then you need to speak at a calm pace and control the pitch of your voice.
Knowing the basic rules for using intonation structures will enrich your speech and will positively affect communication with others.
Exercise aimed at the formation of phonemic hearing
Say each word or phrase with a different intonation: come in (horror, despondency, indifference), Ivan Vasilievich (mockery, amazement, fear, joy), well done (agreement, doubt, fear, surprise).