Map science is engaged in the creation of geographical maps. This is one of the sections of cartography, which, most likely, appeared before the invention of writing. The first maps were depicted on stones, tree bark and even sand. They have been preserved in the form of rock paintings. For example, a good specimen can be seen in the Italian valley of Camonica, it belongs to the Bronze Age.
Geographic maps are a drawing of the earth's surface; it contains a grid of coordinates with conventional signs that are the same for all countries. Of course, the image is greatly reduced. All maps are divided into different types: by scale, territorial coverage, purpose and content. The first category has three types: they can be large-scale, medium-scale, and small-scale.
For the first, the ratio of the picture and the original can be from 1:10 000 to 1: 200 000. They are used most often, because the information on them is more complete. Medium-scale maps are most often used in bundles, for example, in the form of an atlas. Their scale is from 1: 200,000 to 1: 1,000,000 inclusive. The information on them is no longer so complete, therefore they are used less often. Well, the last version of geographic maps has a scale of more than 1: 1,000,000. Only the main objects are plotted on them. And even large cities on them may not have a name and look like a tiny dot. Most often, small-scale maps are used to indicate the distribution of different languages, cultures, religions, and more. One of the most striking examples is weather maps, familiar to almost all people.
By territorial scale, geographic maps are divided into maps of the world, continents, countries and regions. They can have much more appointments. For example, geographical maps can be educational, navigational, tourist, scientific reference and others.
By content, maps are divided into general geographic and thematic. The first depicts geographic phenomena. For example, settlements, economic facilities, relief, borders, etc. Thematic maps are divided into two subcategories: natural and social phenomena.
Geographic maps are one of the most convenient ways to save the information people need. It is difficult to overestimate their role in society, and for each person in particular. Cartography is one of the oldest sciences that will always be relevant.