What Is A Transformer And What Does It Look Like

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What Is A Transformer And What Does It Look Like
What Is A Transformer And What Does It Look Like

Video: What Is A Transformer And What Does It Look Like

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Transformers are used to convert AC voltage and current systems without power loss and are widely used in almost all branches of human activity.



Step 1

A transformer is an electrical device designed to convert an alternating voltage of one magnitude into a voltage of another magnitude (decrease or increase). It consists of a metal core and wire windings of different sections. Since the windings of the device are wound on a core made of special electrical steel, the weight of the device is usually quite impressive in relation to its dimensions. The dimensions of the transformer can vary depending on its power.

Step 2

The transformer can be single-phase or three-phase. It is very simple to understand this issue. If the current flows through four conductors - three phases and zero - the current is three-phase. If there are two wires - phase and zero - this is a single-phase current. To convert a three-phase transformer into a single-phase one, it is enough to take any of the phases and zero. It is this current that flows into residential buildings and apartments. An ordinary household outlet with a voltage of 220 volts flows an alternating single-phase electric current.

Step 3

A single-phase transformer has a simple design, the main elements of which are:

1 - primary winding;

2 - magnetic circuit;

3 - secondary winding;

F is the direction of the magnetic flux;

U1 - voltage in the primary winding;

U2 is the voltage in the secondary winding.

Transformer circuit
Transformer circuit

Step 4

So how does a single phase transformer work? After the voltage is applied to the primary winding, a magnetic flux is formed in it, which moves along the core, exciting the same flux on the secondary winding and converting it into voltage. The magnitude of the voltage depends on the number of turns in the winding and the diameter of the wire from which it is made. This makes it possible to design step-up and step-down voltage devices, without which the transfer of energy in any direction is simply impossible. For example, power transformers are used to increase the voltage in the network. This is due to the characteristics of electrical energy. The higher the voltage indicator, the less its losses in the network and the easier and simpler the overhead and cable lines to perform. After the delivery of electricity to the consumer, its value is reduced to the rated voltage of electrical appliances (microwave ovens, heaters, irons, etc.) so that the consumer can use it.

Step 5

Transformers can be made in the following modifications: automotive transformers, current transformers, voltage transformers, pulse and isolation transformers, etc.

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