What Is Dialectics

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What Is Dialectics
What Is Dialectics

Video: What Is Dialectics

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Video: What is the Dialectic? | Plato, Kant, Hegel, Marx | Keyword 2023, January

Many people, especially those who lived in Soviet times, have heard about the concept of "dialectics". It was usually used in connection with Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Nevertheless, for the majority, this term has remained completely incomprehensible. So what is dialectics?

What is dialectics
What is dialectics


Step 1

Dialectics is one of the methods of conducting a philosophical discussion based on argumentation, as well as a special way of thinking. This concept, like many other basic philosophical terms, appeared in Antiquity. It was introduced by Plato in his famous work "Dialogues". He used the dialectical method in describing dialogues with several participants, during which various contradictions of opinion come to light. These contradictions make it possible to better understand the subject of discussion.

Step 2

In medieval philosophy, the development of dialectics continued. Then it meant the art of discussion in principle, which included the correct formulation of questions and answers, a competent selection of argumentation, as well as a logical analysis of the material before presenting it to the audience.

Step 3

In modern times, philosophy has reached a new level of development, the scope of research has expanded significantly. Dialectics continued to be actively used. For example, the famous representative of the German philosophical school Fichte created a way of creating philosophical theories through antithesis, which was very close to the dialectical method. Hegel also made a significant contribution to the development of dialectics.

Step 4

Dialectics has become one of the main methods of Marxist philosophy. But, unlike Hegel, Marx considered matter to be primary in front of spirit and, accordingly, applied the dialectical method primarily to explain the laws of the development of reality, and not for speculative ideas about it.

Step 5

Later, the so-called "Laws of Dialectics" were formulated by Karl Marx's co-author Friedrich Engels. The first of them, understood as "The Transition of Quantity into Quality", explained the interdependence of these two categories. This law explained both natural phenomena, for example, a change in the state of aggregation of matter, and social ones, for example, a change in formations.

Step 6

The second law reveals the problem of the unity and struggle of opposites. According to him, it is contradictions that lead to development and change. In the public sphere, an example of this law is the class struggle that serves for social development.

Step 7

The third law, called "Denial of negation", illustrates the very process of changing a phenomenon. To acquire a new quality, a phenomenon must lose its old one.

Step 8

Also an important part of Marxist dialectics was a special method of logical constructions, expressed in the system "thesis-antithesis-synthesis". According to her, for each controversial statement, another must be put forward that denies it, and from both of them an idea-synthesis must be deduced, consisting of the strengths of both statements.

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