The first high-rise buildings appeared in the 19th century. Until that time, it was believed that building skyscrapers was economically unprofitable, but the lack of space forced developers to resort to the construction of high-rise structures. Built in 1885, the skyscraper in Chicago was "only" 55 meters high. With the invention of powerful elevators, much taller buildings began to appear. How are modern skyscrapers built?
Initially, in the construction of high-rise buildings, a technology was used that involved the construction of a load-bearing steel frame. The basic principles of this construction method have been preserved to this day. There are no load-bearing walls near the skyscrapers; their function is performed by a metal structure, which is mounted floor by floor. All other structural elements are attached directly to the frame.
When designing skyscrapers, engineers and designers take many factors into account. The features of the soil at the site of future construction are studied, weather conditions are investigated, wind strength and temperature drops are measured. Seismic activity in a given area is also taken into account. The harder the soil, the higher the structure can be erected, all other things being equal.
To prevent the destruction of a skyscraper as a result of hurricanes, tremors or explosions, special refractory materials are used, for example, reinforced concrete, reinforced with special fibers. Skyscraper finishing materials are constantly being improved. External cladding in the form of solar panels is widely used. Some skyscrapers are equipped with wind turbines that generate the energy needed to power a high-rise building.
After the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, as a result of which two high-rise towers of the World Trade Center in New York were destroyed, special attention was paid to the safety of buildings in the construction of skyscrapers. Architects have developed a number of technologies that increase the resistance of multi-storey buildings to collapse.
One of the new technological solutions is the cladding of the outer surfaces with steel plates, which cannot be ignited by aircraft jet fuel. Designers are also trying to increase the number of floors and load-bearing elements. Already today, between the floors of new skyscrapers, special ventilation bunkers are often equipped to prevent smoke. Each skyscraper is supplied with a sufficient number of elevators and fire escapes.
The construction of each skyscraper requires coordinated actions and joint work of many specialists of various professions and qualifications. When calculating the structure, computer modeling is widely used today, which makes it possible to take into account the effect of harmful factors and take measures to eliminate them in advance.