How Solar Powered Devices Work

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How Solar Powered Devices Work
How Solar Powered Devices Work

Video: How Solar Powered Devices Work

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Video: How do solar panels work? - Richard Komp 2023, February
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Solar powered devices are becoming more and more popular. Solar radiation is a renewable, environmentally friendly and economical source of energy. Plus, solar-powered devices are easy to charge in the field and where electrical power is not available.

How solar powered devices work
How solar powered devices work

Instructions

Step 1

Solar powered devices are very convenient when there are no other sources of energy other than sunlight and on long journeys. Also, chargers with a similar operating principle are useful in such a situation. they allow you to charge your phone, camera, player, etc. This is a good solution for those who lead an active lifestyle - tourists, athletes, climbers. It is also a good way to deal with power outages. If you use a large battery, it will charge your devices even at night when there is no sunlight.

Step 2

The solar cell consists of solar cells connected in series and in parallel, located on a frame made of non-conductive materials. Photovoltaic cells work by means of a photovoltaic effect. The energy of the sun's rays is converted into electrical energy using solar cells - special semiconductors. The photocell consists of two layers with different conductivity. Contacts from different sides are soldered to them. Due to the photoelectric effect, when light hits the electrons, their movement occurs. Free electrons are also formed, which have additional energy and are able to move further than the rest. Due to a change in the concentration of electrons, a potential difference is formed. When an external circuit closes, an electric current begins to flow through it. Photovoltaic cells can create a potential difference of different magnitude, depending on its size, the intensity of solar radiation, temperature, etc.

Step 3

Usually, several photocells are connected in devices, from which a solar battery is obtained (other names are solar module, solar assembly). The reason is that the potential difference provided by one photocell is not sufficient to operate the device. To protect fragile solar cells, a coating of plastic, glass and films is used. The main material from which solar cells are made is silicon. This is a very common element on the planet, but its purification is laborious and expensive, so analogs are being looked for.

Step 4

Due to the series connection of the photocells, an increased potential difference is achieved, and due to the parallel connection, the current is achieved. The combination of serial and parallel connections allows you to obtain the desired parameters for voltage and current, and therefore for power.

Step 5

Peak power, expressed in Watts (W, W), is the primary performance characteristic of a solar panel. It shows the power of the battery, which manifests itself in optimal conditions - an ambient temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, solar radiation 1 kW / m2, and a solar spectrum 45 degrees wide. But usually the illumination is lower and the temperature is higher, so peak battery power is difficult to achieve.

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