The history and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome is called antiquity. Sometimes this word simply means ancient times (translated from Latin antiquitas it means “ancient”). Thanks to antiquity, Homer's poems, the tragedies of Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, the theater, the Olympic Games, the democratic system, fascinating myths, great works of painting and architecture, and much more appeared in the world.
The term "antiquity" is perceived today as something integral, but initially these were two worlds: Roman and Greek. The ancient Greeks occupied the islands of the Aegean Sea, the south of the Balkan Peninsula and the western coast of Asia Minor (where Turkey is now located), and the Romans settled first on the banks of the Tiber, then occupied the entire Apennine Peninsula.
The Greek world appeared much earlier than the Roman one: its origins go back to the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations that existed several millennia BC. In the 11-8 centuries BC. the ancient Hellenes switched to the slave system (instead of the communal system), at the same time the famous Greek mythology began to be created, the epic was formed. 7-6 centuries BC - the beginning of the flourishing of ancient Greek culture: city-states of policies were formed, medicine, writing, astronomy appeared, architecture was actively developing.
The Greek world developed gradually, while the Roman one took shape over several centuries and began to aggressively expand its possessions. 4-1 century BC - the period of the formation of the Roman Empire, and in the second century BC. it takes over Greece and the two worlds unite. As Horace wrote, “conquered Greece defeated its uncultured victor”: the Romans borrowed the pantheon of gods from the Hellenes (changing names), artists and sculptors began to copy harmonious Greek images, bilingualism arose in the country. At this time, aqueducts (ancient aqueducts), roads were being built in Rome, concrete was invented.
3-5 n. NS. called the period of late antiquity: Roman culture reaches its peak, but its development is already moving towards decline. During this period, the Colosseum and the Pantheon were erected, slave revolts broke out, gladiatorial battles were held, and Christianity was also born. In 476, the Romans were captured by the Visigoths and Vandals. With the fall of the Roman Empire, a new round begins in history - the era of the Middle Ages.
The culture of antiquity influenced all subsequent eras. Ancient thinkers and scientists showed great zeal in studying the world around them, laying the foundations of grammar, arithmetic, geography, geometry, philosophy and other sciences. The terms themselves are of Greek origin. Roman law served as the foundation for the creation of other Western states. And poets, painters, designers and architects are still inspired by the artistic forms and images that arose during the period of antiquity.