The deepest roots are in saxaul. Their length can be 10-11 meters. But the ficus has the longest roots - some species of this plant are capable of growing aerial roots up to 120 meters long.
Saxaul has the deepest roots among plants. This plant belongs to the amaranth family and grows in the desert. In Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, you can often find real saxaul forests.
Outwardly, this plant is a shrub or small tree with leaves in the form of colorless scales. Photosynthesis in saxaul occurs not in leaves, but in green branches.
Saxaul is characterized by an extremely powerful root system. Often, its roots go to a depth of 10 meters or more. This is due to the fact that in deserts where saxaul grows, aquifers lie at great depths and large plants grow long, powerful roots to get to the water.
The most famous species of saxaul are black saxaul and white saxaul. Their green branches serve as excellent, and often the only available food for camels.
Another desert plant that has a powerful root system is called “camel thorn”. By itself, the thorn rarely grows above 50-100 centimeters. But its roots can grow up to 4 meters or more. The presence of such a developed root system in the camel thorn, as in the saxaul, is explained by the deep location of the aquifers in the desert. In addition to deserts, camel thorn is found in the steppes and semi-deserts of the south of our country, in the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The aerial part of the camel thorn is used in official and folk medicine. The dried herb of thorns is used in the treatment of gastritis, colitis, stomach ulcers, and is also used as a diuretic and astringent.
The roots of some plants are only partially located underground. If we consider the depth of the roots as the length of the entire root, then the ficus will be the record holder for this indicator in the world of plants. Some species of ficus grow up to 30 meters in height. At the same time, their aerial roots descend almost from the very top of the trunk.
One of the wild ficuses native to South Africa holds the record for root length among all terrestrial plants. The largest roots of this tree reach 120 meters in length.
Many ficuses begin life by sprouting from a seed directly on the bark of the host tree. When the ficus grows, it puts down aerial roots, which, reaching the ground, entwine the host plant, which leads to its death. And the ficus continues to develop on the dead tree frame.