Peas are unpretentious plants. How a plant develops from a seed can be seen at home at any time of the year. The pea germination technology is not particularly complicated.
Several seeds ripen in pea (bean) fruits, their number is different each time. Pea is a dicotyledonous plant and differs from monocotyledons in that there are two cotyledons in the embryo of its seed. Ripe pea seeds do not contain endosperm; all nutrients are contained in the cotyledons. Germination and development of living seeds begins with their swelling, increase in volume. The amount of water absorbed by plants varies greatly: legumes can absorb more than 100% of water, oil plants only 35-40%, and cereals 50-70%. The volume of legumes increases dramatically when they swell. An indicative experience is when peas are placed in a bottle, poured with water and sealed tightly with a cork. Within a few hours the bottle may burst under the pressure of the seeds.
Dead seeds also undergo swelling, but subsequently do not germinate, but rot. The first of the necessary conditions for germination is the presence of water or moisture in the soil. Under the influence of moisture on living seeds, complex chemical reactions are triggered and enzymes begin to act, as a result of which cellular turgor is created.
The second condition for the seed to start germinating is a suitable temperature. For each plant there are minimum, maximum and optimum temperatures for seed germination. Peas and most legumes germinate at 1 to 5 degrees above zero. Best of all, the seed will develop at a temperature of 20 to 30 degrees, and starting from 37, the temperature becomes fatal for them. The third prerequisite is the presence of oxygen in the air. In the absence of oxygen, the seeds will not germinate, and the lower the oxygen content, the worse their development will be.
Usually seeds germinate in the dark, but there are also plants whose seeds need light to germinate. For hard seeds with a dense skin, for successful germination, you need to damage the skin, for example, by grinding them with sand. This mechanical damage is called scarification. Plants of the middle lane need a preliminary exposure to cold for successful germination. Germination-promoting chemicals are also popular. After the pea is swollen, the seed coat breaks and the root of the embryo comes out. Next comes the hypocotyl, the hypocotyl knee that carries the cotyledons. Small cotyledons are carried to the surface of the soil, while large ones remain in it. Between the two cotyledons, dividing them, a bud with a rudiment of the stem and leaves begins to develop.