For the first time the word Ρωσία, which sounds like "Russia", was mentioned in the entries "On the administration of the empire" and "On ceremonies" of the Byzantine emperor Constantine, dated back to the 10th century. However, the history of Russia can be traced back to much more distant times.
Archaeologists have discovered that people settled in the territories belonging to modern Russia 1-1.5 million years ago. The ancestors of modern Russians lived on the Taman Peninsula. The later sites of Homo sapiens are dated 35-25 thousand years BC. Experts say that they built dwellings from mammoth bones, which were covered with its own skins. Even then, it was customary to bury people, and the burial was a sacred ritual. Somewhat later, Cro-Magnons settled on the territory of Russia, who are classified as Svider culture. They widely used arrows and bows for hunting, and after several centuries they mastered the manufacture of ceramic dishes.
The Cro-Magnons were replaced by representatives of the Lyalovo, and then the Volosovo culture. The descendants of the Laplanders lived in the northern part of the country. The upper reaches of the Dnieper were inhabited by bearers of the Drepro-Dvino culture, characterized by a primitive way of life, the use of stone axes and an almost complete absence of rituals. The territories of the south of Russia were developed approximately 5 thousand years BC. Some experts are convinced that the Proto-Indo-Europeans settled there. They raised livestock, processed precious stones and practiced the cult of the sun. The first cities in the Urals appeared in about the 3rd millennium BC. After 7-9 centuries, Indo-Europeans settled on the territory of the central part of Russia, who were then replaced by the Finno-Ugric peoples. The Slavs as a nation settled in territories that are outside the borders of the modern Russian Federation.
In VI BC, on the territory that now belongs to Russia, city-states appeared: Gorgippia, Phanagoria, Hermonassa. A century later, the Slavs migrated from Poland, and their descendants became Kriviches. The main tribes of the Eastern Slavs appeared and settled down around VI-VIII AD. By this time, the disintegration of the tribal community was firmly marked, where power belonged only to the elder, and a territorial community appeared, where power was divided between the elder and the veche.
According to most sources, the ancient Russian state appeared in 862, when Rurik was called to Russia to reign. In his era, the country consisted of Veliky Novgorod, Staraya Ladoga, Rostov, Beloozero, where the Slovenes, Varangians, Krivichi, Chud, everything lived, lived. Several years later Kiev became the capital of the country. This fact is considered the finale of the formation of Ancient Rus as a state.
However, the borders of Russia were not constant. Khazaria was annexed by Prince Svyatoslav from the south. This happened in 965. The grandson of the first Russian Christian princess Olga, Vladimir, baptized Russia in 988. Vladimir's son Yaroslav adopted the first set of laws "Russian Truth". During that period, the ruling class was finally formed - princes and boyars.