Elements of the science of strategic management in the practical activities of mankind have been used since ancient times. The methods and techniques of strategies were practiced by people when they began to unite in organizations.
The concept of "strategy" in ancient Greece
Central to the history of the emergence of strategic management is the very concept of "strategy". This word is ancient and originates from the Greek strategia, which means the science or art of being a military leader. In ancient Greece, the art of a commander cannot be overestimated. From ancient history, it is obvious that the most successful and talented commanders always attached great importance in the construction of battle tactics to the competent construction of the army's support. In addition, they made a decision when to separate units to join the battle, and when it was necessary just to negotiate with the population, to be politicians and diplomats. Therefore, the Greek generals are considered the first strategists.
Strategies in Ancient China
Between four hundred and eightieth and two hundred and twenty-first years BC in ancient China, a work was written with the title "The Art of Strategy". To whom to assign authorship, to one person or to consider a book as a national property, disputes over these issues do not fade even today. From the concept of this work, it is clear that since ancient times, strategies in society have been given a meaning that is currently considered the optimal behavior of a company or the norm of an individual's activity. Song Tsu described in his works that one who was able to win hundreds of victories in thousands of conflicts can hardly have high skill. And the one who can use the skill of strategy can conquer others, while not entering into conflict with them.
Modern preconditions for the emergence of strategic management
A prerequisite for rethinking the ancient tasks and the role of strategic management was, on the one hand, the extensive development of high information and intellectual technologies in the practical activities of people, and, on the other hand, the rapid economic and industrial development in the developed countries of the USA and Europe. These technologies include the development of large-scale industries, namely factories and plants, commercial enterprises and banks, concerns and troops. The first stage was the stage of development in the United States from the eighties of the nineteenth century to the thirties of the twentieth century mass production. Its main characteristic is the growth of volumes and the formation of infrastructure for mass production. From the point of view of strategic management, the most popular in the development of his idea was the approach of Henry Ford.