Green spaces, their placement and the required area, must be taken into account when planning any kind of territories, especially residential and recreational areas. Trees, shrubs and lawns in urban planning have two important functions: sanitary protection and decorative.
Sanitary protection function of urban green spaces
It is difficult to overestimate the role of green spaces in the ecology of the urban environment. Thanks to them, the dustiness and gas content of the city air is reduced by 60-70% - the dust settles on the grass and leaves, and the gas is filtered and converted into oxygen during photosynthesis. Even in winter, when there is no foliage on the trees, they still prevent the spread of dust.
Of course, when planting green spaces, city services should take into account the dust-retaining properties of various types of trees and shrubs, which largely depend on the morphological structure of the leaves. To a greater extent, dust is retained by those species of vegetation, on the leaves of which there are villi. In addition, the growth rate also affects the popularity of a particular breed used for landscaping streets. That is why poplars, elms, maples, plane trees and lilacs can be found most often on city streets. Gas pollution also negatively affects vegetation. The most resistant to its effects are aspen, elm, poplar, Siberian apple, spruce.
In addition to dust and gases, plants can also protect townspeople not only from noise, but also from drafts and wind. Shrubs and short trees with dense foliage work best with this function. Wind speed can be reduced by 60% only by planting green spaces 30 meters wide across the main air currents circulating on city streets. At the same time, the wind protection function does not decrease, even if walkways and driveways are organized between the plantings.
As you know, plants release phytoncides into the surrounding air - substances that kill pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. Conifers are especially famous for this, but deciduous ones - birch, poplar, bird cherry and oak - are also capable of disinfecting the air, reducing the content of bacteria many times over. In addition, vegetation increases the humidity of the air and lowers its temperature, which is especially valuable in the hot season.
Decorative function of green spaces
Vegetation is an organic part of the urban landscape, giving it integrity and completeness. Due to the richness of colors and forms that various breeds possess, changing their color depending on the season can decorate and revitalize any cityscape. The use of various tree species when landscaping a particular area of the city can achieve their individualization and overcome the monotony of building.
Individual areas of vegetation can also play a planning role, organically fitting into urban architectural ensembles. The role of green spaces in the organization of recreation and recreation areas is especially invaluable. Parks and alleys are favorite places of recreation for the townspeople, giving them the opportunity to communicate with nature.