Small boxes with transformers are located in many courtyards. However, not all people understand the true purpose of this device, which works constantly and ensures the normal functioning of electrical equipment in every home and office.
Almost everyone knows the term "transformer". Scientifically speaking, a transformer is a static electromagnetic device that has two or more inductively coupled windings on a magnetic circuit and is designed to convert, by electromagnetic induction, one or more AC systems (voltages) into one or more other systems (voltages), without changing frequency.
Current for the uninitiated
From the school physics course, everyone should know that when electric current is transmitted over a distance, some loss occurs in the form of heat radiation. Therefore, power plants generate and transmit high voltage energy, which is much higher than that required for the functioning of most household appliances. The transformer plays a big role here. First, it increases the voltage to transmit current, and then, already on the way to the consumer, the voltage decreases. All this happens through the process of electromagnetic induction. In the absence of a transformer, modern electrical engineering would simply not have withstood the voltage, which is monstrous at the transfer stage, and would catch fire.
Inside electrical apparatus
Some electrical appliances (TV, for example) require several electrical flows with different voltages. To obtain them, a transformer is built into the device with several windings, or containing several smaller transformers. In the case of a TV, this is required, for example, to convert the incoming current to power the kinescope (here the voltage is about 3 kilovolts) and microcircuits (5 volts). Computers also use transformers in their power supplies.
Use in special cases
In addition to the above, there are other types of transformers. An isolation transformer (where the windings are separated from each other either by distance or by a partition) is used to reduce the risk of electric shock in places where it is most likely to occur (bathroom, for example, with its moisture and abundance of metal parts). There are also specialized types, such as instrument transformers, designed to measure alternating voltages and currents in relay protection and automation circuits. Diesel generators also use transformers to stabilize the output voltage to an optimal value.
Thus, transformers play an important role in the provision of electricity and its use in almost any unit operating on the mains. They are also used for diagnostic and industrial purposes.