The word "Caledonia" has recently become a household name. This is how all kinds of hotels and inns, different towns, ships and trains are called, there is a waterfall in Cyprus and a place with that name. In France, there is a locality and district with this name. Chic restaurants around the world are named after Caledonia.
A bit of history
In ancient times, the northern part of the island of Great Britain, which is located behind the Gulf of Fort, was called Caledonia. For many centuries, those places have had a different name - Scotland, but in poetic literature you can still often find a harmonious Latin term. It is believed that Scotland received its first name from the Romans. Among Roman poets, such as Lucan, Caledonia is found in works describing the enslavement of Britain by ancient Rome at the very beginning of our era.
The Caledonian Forest is noted by Pliny in Natural History as a dense place on the northern border of Roman Britain, inhabited by people. Further, the name Caledonia is found in the records of Tacitus, where he describes the campaigns of Agricola. It was there that the leader of the tribes of Caledonia, the great Galak, was defeated by Agricola in 54 AD. According to the testimony of Tacitus, almost 10 thousand soldiers were killed in this battle. There are records of other battles as well. So, Lolly Urbic built in Caledonia the Antonin shaft (in honor of the ruler) and won frequent victories over the Don. However, the attempts of the Emperor of the North to completely conquer this part of the Earth in 208 AD failed. Hard-to-reach and unexplored places, forests and mountains, did not enslave the population of Caledonia.
In the future, references to Caledonia disappear from the records of historians and writers. Other representatives of the British population appear on the stage of history: Picts, cattle, Saxons and Attacots.
The very name of this area has rather obscure etymological roots. Perhaps the word "Caledonia" comes from the Kimrian Celydd, which translates as "wooded fence" or from the Irish caill - "firewood, logs". Presumably, Caledonia is consonant with the name of the Celtic people, once called the Gauls. Here the opinions of scientists diverged.
There is an administrative-territorial entity under the jurisdiction of France in the southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean, which is called New Caledonia. Perhaps this area is named in honor of the once enslaved part of Scotland. Indeed, despite the subordination of France, this territory has a special status and independence from its founding country. In addition, the island and adjacent territories were discovered by a native of Caledonia - James Cook in 1774, and named after his homeland. Until 1896, the island was used as a prison for French criminals. And from the beginning of the 19th century, rapid economic development began in New Caledonia, infrastructure appeared, new mines were being built, where gold, nickel, iron, etc. were mined in good volumes.