Etude is a word that came to the Russian language from French. At the same time, the word "etude" is very ambiguous: it has different meanings in painting, sports, theatrical activities and other spheres.
The word "etude" is an exact Russian transcription of the French term "étude", which in translation from this language means "teaching" or "research". This word in Russian has several meanings that are quite different from each other, and they are concentrated mainly in the field of art. However, the imprint of the original meaning of the French original is noticeable in every sense of the word.
Study in painting
One of the most common meanings that they have in mind when they say the word "etude" refers to the field of painting. In this sense, it means a work that is usually performed from life and can be a landscape, still life, portrait or other genre of fine art based on the reflection of reality. Often, a sketch is called a drawing, the degree of elaboration of which is not too high, since it serves as one of the options for the future finished work. Therefore, a serious artist, as a rule, makes several sketches for one major work.
In the field of painting, the word "etude" also has an additional meaning, more closely related to the original meaning of the French original. So, under the etude is sometimes meant a teaching lesson, the purpose of which is to create an artistic sketch for a future picture.
Etude in music and theater
The word "etude" is also used to refer to musical works, which, in turn, have pronounced features. So, this work most often has a short duration and is written for one musical instrument or voice. Its main goal is usually to develop the technical skills of the performer.
The word "etude" has a similar meaning in the theatrical environment: it is a small-scale production, in which the participation of a limited number of actors is expected, and is used to develop the technique of acting. At the same time, an etude in a theatrical environment most often includes a significant part based on improvisation, which allows improving the acting of the actors.
Etude in chess
Another common meaning of this word is associated with the game of chess. In this area, the use of this term also has a connotation that reflects the teaching nature of this concept. Thus, the word "etude" among chess players is customary to denote a situation on the board specially drawn up by a specialist, which the student must decide in his favor or achieve a draw.