Kremlin As A World Heritage Site

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Kremlin As A World Heritage Site
Kremlin As A World Heritage Site

Video: Kremlin As A World Heritage Site

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Video: Amazing UNESCO World Heritage Sites Russia | UNESCO World Heritage Sites 2023, January

In 1972, at the XVII session of UNESCO, the Convention was adopted, the purpose of which was to preserve values ​​that are outstanding natural and cultural monuments and have undeniable value for mankind. Two years later, the first list of places and monuments included in the World Heritage was created. One of these objects is the Moscow Kremlin.



Step 1

In our country there are several sights and unique places of nature that have been awarded inclusion in the UNESCO list: Baikal, Solovetsky Islands, Kizhi, historical centers of Yaroslavl and St. Petersburg and others. The Moscow Kremlin was listed in 1990 according to several criteria.

Step 2

The first buildings on the site of the modern Kremlin arose during the reign of Prince George (Yuri), nicknamed Dolgoruky. They were made of wood, and therefore the clans of the Polovtsy and Tatars that periodically came to Russia burned them and ravaged the buildings. And the first structures made of snow-white stone appeared under Ivan Danilovich Kalita and for many hundreds of years they defined the city - white stone. The famous Italian sculptors Fryazina, Ruffo, Fioravanti were invited to Russia. They added their own styles to Russian building traditions - Fryazin, Venetian, Byzantine.

Step 3

Fires in the 17th century gradually destroyed old wooden buildings. In their place, new churches were erected, weathercocks made of gold leaf and colored tiled "caps" appeared on the Kremlin towers. But after Tsar Peter I moved the capital to St. Petersburg, funding for construction work in the Kremlin stopped, and the buildings fell into desolation.

Step 4

It was only under Catherine II that intensive construction resumed in the Kremlin. The architect V.I. Bazhenov planned to erect a magnificent palace, which was to become the center of all previously built temples and structures. After the plague epidemic and due to the traditional lack of funds, the work was curtailed.

Step 5

Each new century brought its own adjustments to the reconstruction of the Kremlin buildings. In the 19th century, pseudo-Gothic came into vogue, adding elements of European Gothic to the Moscow Baroque style. And after the October Revolution, churches and palaces were rebuilt for the needs of the Soviet regime. At the same time, part of the old buildings was demolished. And only in the 90s of the XX century, restoration work began, returning the Kremlin to its true face.

Step 6

The Moscow Kremlin today is a unique monument of history and national architecture, one of the most beautiful architectural and artistic ensembles reflecting the past and present of Russia. It is included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites according to four criteria at once. The Patriarchal Chambers, the architectural complex of the Grand Kremlin Palace, Arkhangelsk, Assumption and Annunciation Cathedrals, Cathedral Square with the bell tower and belfry of Ivan the Great, Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon can rightfully be called masterpieces of creative thought reflecting the influence of eras on the cultural life of the country and having value for the entire world cultural heritage.

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