In 1906, the governor of Saratov, Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin, received an offer from the emperor to head the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Stolypin accepted the offer, and soon he headed the Russian government. In his domestic policy, the prime minister paid special attention to the development of the eastern provinces of Russia. During the reign of the new prime minister, the concept of "Stolypin carriage" arose.
Stolypin took a number of measures that encouraged the resettlement of peasants from the European part of the country to the uninhabited regions of Siberia and the Far East. The government-planned mass resettlement was part of Stolypin's agrarian reform. About three million peasants left their homes and went east to get land for use.
In 1908, the most ordinary freight cars were adapted for the transportation of numerous immigrants traveling to Siberia and the Far East. Since the initiator of the mass resettlement was P.A. Stolypin, these improved cars began to be called "Stolypin". Mass production of "Stolypin" type cars took place in 1910.
Such a car, of course, did not provide an opportunity for a comfortable journey, but it could accommodate immigrants with their simple property. In the rear of the freight cars, special compartments were equipped where livestock and agricultural implements could be transported. There were few amenities, but the peasants, who were accustomed to living in harsh conditions, did not consider moving in the "Stolypin wagon" something terrible. Moreover, travel to the new place of residence was free.
When the wave of migrants began to fade away, "Stolypin wagons" began to be widely used to transport prisoners - those under investigation and prisoners.
Further history of the "Stolypin carriage"
After the establishment of the power of the Soviets, the name "Stolypin carriage" became a household name. Repressed persons were transported en masse in wagons of a similar design. The peculiarities of such cars and all the "charms" of transporting prisoners in paints were described by Alexander Solzhenitsyn in one of his novels, The Gulag Archipelago.
The later version of the Stolypin carriage resembled an ordinary carriage in size. Only inside it was divided into compartments-cells by special partitions, one part of which was closed with bars.
The cells were located on one side of the car, the other part was occupied by a corridor, where from time to time the convoy walked around, monitoring the behavior of the prisoners.
Modern "wagons" - wagons for transporting prisoners - outwardly almost do not differ from mail or baggage wagons. The only difference is that the internal structure of the premises is adapted for specific purposes. The design of a vehicle intended for the transport of prisoners provides minimal comfort for prisoners and accompanying personnel, as well as reliable protection against escapes.