When a naughty tomboy is told, shaking his head: “Well, you’re done!” - this is irony. When an employee, shaking with fear in front of the boss's door, is told, "You are a hero," it is ironic. And when a stupid person, uttering banal truths, is told: "Clever, clever …", this is also irony. Traditional irony is condemnation in the guise of praise. They resort to her help when they want to give their statement the exact opposite meaning, but at the same time act subtly and even kindly.
The word "irony" comes from the Greek eirоneia - pretense. Irony is a category of aesthetics; scholars of literature find its origins in the traditions of ancient rhetoric. It is from there that the European ironic tradition of modern times originated.
There are several forms of irony:
- straight line, with the help of which there is a clear belittling of a person, phenomenon or event. A way of giving a negative or funny character to what is happening ("Well, you are a hero …");
- anti-irony, is the complete opposite of straight irony. Using it, it seems possible to show the object as something underestimated (“How can you, stupid, convince him” - a person who received a reprimand from the boss);
- self-irony, which is directed at oneself. As a rule, it is latently endowed with a positive connotation ("Where can we, fools, climb forward");
- Socratic irony is a version of self-irony, built in such a way that the object at which it is directed independently deduces logical logical conclusions for itself and finds the hidden meaning of what was said in an ironic form. This is a very skillful kind of irony, requiring knowledge of logic and subtle language.
There is another form of irony, which some scholars elevate to a completely separate form, since we are talking about an ironic worldview. It is not just about expressing one's thoughts in a certain form, but about a state of mind in which blind faith in common statements and stereotypes is excluded, and when a person does not consider various “generally recognized values” to be so significant and serious.
Many dictionaries as synonyms for the word "irony" give the following: sarcasm, mockery, prickly, malice, mockery, causticity, ridicule, mockery, banter. Taking into account the greatness and power of the Russian language, as well as the many semantic loads on one lexical unit (word), one should nevertheless take into account that all these words do not mean the same thing. So, sarcasm is a tougher type of irony, sarcasm is, rather, acrimony and mockery, and malice is anger and deceit.