Rape is sexual violence. It refers to sexual intercourse committed by an abuser or a group of such people without the victim's consent. At different times in different countries the definition of violence has been interpreted in different ways.
- - the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation;
- - a statement to the police;
- - medical expertise.
Ancient and Roman law did not emphasize the sexual aspect. Rape was interpreted as violence in the generally accepted sense, that is, not sexual intercourse, but any physical violence against a person. In modern law, an attempt on chastity comes to the fore, and the concept of violence generally follows it.
In Russia, from the point of view of a legal concept, they began to be interested in rape only in the 19th century. Moreover, only one type of rape was considered - a man of a woman. At all times in Russia, the rape of a married woman was punished more severely than an unmarried one.
Rape is a sexual crime committed by one or more people, regardless of gender, against a person without their consent. The definition of rape includes violent sexual acts against a victim who is unconscious or in a state of helplessness. This is a state of alcoholic intoxication, exposure to drugs, young age, mental disorder. Also, rape is a sexual act committed using any form of coercion - from physical violence to psychological pressure.
Today, Russian law defines rape as sexual intercourse committed with the use of violence or the threat to use it. Also, sexual acts during the helpless state of the victim remain rape. As before, in Russia, rape is considered an act committed by a man in relation to a woman, and sexual intercourse must be accomplished "naturally." This is Article 131 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The rest of the "unnatural" sexual offenses are classified under Article 132 as violent acts of a sexual nature.
Among Jews during the period of Old Testament law, a woman who was raped was punishable by death if the rape took place in a place where she could potentially be saved (within the city limits, not in a forest or field), but she did not shout or call for help.
In the Russian legal legislation of the 19th century, copulation became the main sign of rape. Rape began to be divided into two types - sexual intercourse without the woman's consent, but without the use of violence, and sexual intercourse with the use of violent actions that make resistance impossible.