Africa is the oldest continent where the first people appeared. Ancient remains of primitive human ancestors and applied tools were discovered by archaeologists in layers of rocks, which are approximately 3 million years old, in the territory of modern Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya.
Ethnic composition of the peoples of Africa
Today, the ethnic composition of the population of African countries is a rather complex community of peoples. Several hundred small and large ethnic groups live on the Black Continent. Some number between one and five million. The most numerous of them are: Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Egyptian, Moroccan, Sudanese, Algerian Arabs, Fulbe, Amhara.
The modern population of Africa is represented by various anthropological types that belong to different races. In total, there are up to 7 thousand ethnic groups and nationalities on this continent.
• Indo-Mediterranean race
In the northern part of the continent, up to the southernmost border of the Sahara Desert, the peoples of the Indo-Mediterranean race live. Its representatives in Africa are the Berbers and Arabs, whose characteristic external features include black wavy hair, dark skin, a narrow face, and dark eyes. As a rare exception, the Berbers have blue-eyed and fair-haired specimens.
• Negro-Australoid race
Its representatives live south of the Sahara and are divided into three minor races - Bushman, Negrill and Negro. The quantitative majority here belongs to the peoples of the Negro race, who live in the territory of Central and Western Sudan, in the upper Nile and on the coast of Guinea. Their representatives include the Bantu and Nilot peoples, who are distinguished by their tall stature, coarse black hair, curling in spirals, thick lips, dark skin and a wide nose.
The Negrilic race includes stunted African pygmies - inhabitants of the rainforests of the Uele and Congo rivers. In addition to their small stature up to 142 cm, they are distinguished by an overdeveloped tertiary hairline, a wide nose with a very flat bridge of the nose and lighter skin.
Modern peoples of the Bushmen race live in the Kalahari Desert, their representatives are Hottentots and Bushmen. They are characterized by light (brownish-yellow) skin, thin lips on a flat face, and increased skin wrinkling.
• Ethiopian race
Occupies an intermediate step between the Negroid and Indo-Mediterranean races. The peoples of the Ethiopian race live in northeastern Africa (Somalia, Ethiopia) and have dark wavy hair, thick lips on a narrow face with a thin nose.