Oil and its refined products are complex hydrocarbon mixtures. The level of their production and consumption in modern society is one of the main criteria for an economically developed economy.
Oil refining process
The process of distillation of oil is carried out at oil refineries using complex physical and chemical-technological processes. It includes the primary preparation of raw materials, in which oil is freed from water, mineral salts and various mechanical impurities. Then, at different stages of boiling during vacuum distillation, the oil is separated into fractions. This is done in order to isolate the substances originally present in it.
Types of refined products
The main purpose of the oil refining process is the production of petroleum products and fuel mixtures. They are divided into light ones: gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, which have various brands and densities, and dark ones, such as fuel oil, heating oil and others.
The heavy residue formed at the end of the vacuum distillation of oil is called tar. It is he who is the raw material for the production of the well-known bitumen, which, together with crushed stone, sand and mineral powder, is part of the asphalt.
There is a huge industry formed on the basis of hydrocarbon raw materials obtained in the refinery process. The petrochemical industry is engaged in the production of raw materials for the manufacture of plastics, chemicals, alcohol and many other components necessary for the national economy.
Many well-known lubricants are petroleum refined products. Automotive and machine oils used for corrosion protection, friction reduction and conservation are also based on hydrocarbons.
In the process of oil refining, the so-called associated petroleum gases are formed. They are used as fuels mixed with other components, as well as for the production of acetone, acetic acid and many types of solvents.
It is impossible to imagine the modern cosmetic industry without oil derivatives, which are included in creams and peels in the form of mineral oil, paraffin and many other substances that perform various functions. Mineral oil is the base of powder, mascara, blush and foundation.
The use in medicine of such refined products as ozokerite, paraffin, naphthalan and kerosene allows to obtain positive results in the treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system, internal organs and various pathologies, including disorders in the functioning of the central nervous system.