New fabrics with a wide variety of properties are constantly appearing on the shelves. But sometimes there is a need to find out which product of the textile industry you are holding in your hands. Determining the type of fabric, even without having a chemical laboratory at hand, is very simple.
- - matches or a lighter;
- - white porcelain saucer.
Use the simplest combustion test to determine the type of fabric. For this, a very small piece of cloth or even a few threads taken from an untreated cut is enough.
Place the fibers of the fabric on a white china saucer and light. Pay attention to smell, burning rate, flame color and of course combustion products.
Natural fabrics of plant origin (linen and cotton) burn quickly, practically odorless, just like paper burns. After burning, a little light gray ash remains.
Having determined that in front of you is linen or cotton, take a close look at the fabric itself. Linseed has a smoother, shinier surface. The twisting of the threads is not as smooth as that of cotton. In addition, when cotton is burned, the smell of burnt paper is stronger.
Natural wool rolls up into small balls when burning. Wool fibers burn badly, if you remove the flame, the light can go out altogether. A very pungent unpleasant smell of burnt horn is characteristic. If you want to compare with something, set fire to a few of your hairs. In essence, this is the same wool.
Natural silk is also a product of animal origin. It burns in the same way as wool - with an unpleasant odor and sintering into brittle tiny balls. If a fabric made of natural silk is pressed against the body, it heats up very quickly, artificial silk does not possess this property.
Artificial fabrics always melt when burned and often emit strong unpleasant odors. Moreover, if you set fire to a large piece of fabric, its edges will melt and even drip down in hot drops.
Polyester fibers are very similar to wool in their qualities. They are often found in the textile industry - lavsan, terylene, dacron. Fabrics made from such fibers burn with a strong emission of soot; a black ball melts at the end of the thread. No specific smells appear during combustion.
Another large group of fibers is polyamide. These include nylon, nylon, dederon, silon. All of these fabrics burn quickly and produce soot. When burning, bubbles are formed, which immediately burst. A sweetish odor is emitted. After decay, a glassy dark brown ball remains.
Common acetate fabrics burn very easily. During burning, the melting brown drop seems to boil, and if the fabric is extinguished, it immediately hardens. A pungent sour odor is emitted.
Sportswear, raincoats, swimwear are made of polycrylonitrile fibers - nitron, orlon, drelon, wolfcrilon. Fabrics made from these fibers first melt, and then quickly burn out without leaving a residue with a bright flame. There is no smell during combustion.