There are many ways to purify water, but they can be divided into household and technological ones. The first are supposed to use improvised means for this, the second - to use modern cleaning methods.
- - iodine solution 5%;
- - potassium permanganate;
- - cotton wool;
- - gauze;
- - cotton fabric;
- - Activated carbon.
At home, you can use gauze, cotton wool, or a terry towel as a filter. Place several layers of cloth or cotton wool in a colander and slowly pour water over it. The fabric will well retain the dregs and gradually get dirty, and therefore it must be replaced periodically. For better cleaning, use activated charcoal, sprinkling it between layers - this will help get rid of unnecessary organic impurities and chlorine.
When water is heated to 100 degrees, harmful impurities evaporate together with steam. In this case, the water becomes softer due to the fact that the salts remain in the form of scale on the walls of the dishes. If you want to decontaminate a liquid, simply bringing the water to a boil is not enough. It will take 10-15 minutes to get rid of pathogenic microbes.
Defend the water
Use sedimentation to clarify water, remove volatiles and precipitate harmful substances. Use glass, enamel or ceramic dishes for this. After 2-3 hours, bubbles of gaseous impurities will appear on the walls, and after 8-12 hours a sediment will appear at the bottom. If the water has not become transparent after 12 hours, the fine suspension will no longer settle and additional filtration should be carried out.
Place a pot of water in the freezer. After a while, ice forms in the container and the unfrozen liquid is a mixture of water and salts. It needs to be drained and the ice melted and used for cooking.
Purify water in the field
Use clear water for cooking. If the reservoir is cloudy, there is an unnecessary suspension of solid particles in it. You can get rid of them by filtering. Take a plastic container and punch a few holes in the bottom. Place a clean handkerchief or towel on top of them and fill two-thirds full with fine sand and campfire coals. The mud settles in the thickness of the sand, and the clear liquid flows out of the hole. For reliability, repeat the filtration several times, while replacing the sand and a clean cloth. Boil filtered water for at least 15 minutes to prevent contamination by bacteria. Let the liquid sit for at least half an hour and use it for cooking and drinking.
first aid kits. If the water is suspicious, add a few crystals of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) to it so that the solution becomes slightly pink. Wait at least half an hour, the water will brighten and become drinkable. To cleanse small volumes, you can use 5% iodine (3-4 drops per 1 liter of water). Add a few drops and stir, let sit for an hour and drink. Take advantage of the antibacterial properties of silver. If a silver piece or coin is immersed in water, the growth of bacteria stops.