“Rails-rails, sleepers-sleepers, a belated train was traveling …” - this rhyme is known to many since childhood, when my mother ran her hand along the small back, saying these words. But the kids didn’t think about the train that was going. Interest in how the train moves appears later, with the study of the surrounding mechanisms.
A train is a train that is made up of several wagons with one or more locomotives attached to them. There may also be motor carriages, railcars and locomotives without carriages.
The most common option is when a group of cars is driven by a locomotive. The engine for them is either a diesel (diesel locomotives) or a gas turbine (gas turbine locomotives).
Diesel is an internal combustion engine in which the principle of spontaneous combustion of atomized fuel operates. Various refined products, oils of natural origin, and even sometimes just crude oil can be raw materials for it.
A gas turbine is a continuous engine in which the energy of the compressed gas is converted into mechanical work on the shaft. Since the range of speeds of rotation of these engines is rather narrow, an intermediate gear is needed to accelerate the rotation of the wheels - electric or hydraulic. Also, energy for a locomotive can be transferred from the outside - through the electrical network. It is called an electric locomotive.
When it is necessary to stop, the brakes are used. The most used today can be called pneumatic brakes, which work using compressed air.
In addition to the braking and release modes, the braking force can be changed. The driver activates the brakes with the driver's crane. It regulates the amount of air in the brake cylinders, respectively, and the work of the brakes. The brake cylinders convert the compressed air pressure into mechanical energy and act through the brake linkage on the brake pads, pressing them against the wheel rim. This stops the train.
In order to make our travels on trains safe, they are equipped with various instruments, sensors and devices. Most of them are located in the driver's cab. For example, to control traffic signals, the train is provided with automatic locomotive signaling. She reads special signals that come from the traffic light in front, decodes them and at the mini-traffic light in the cab, repeats the signals of the traffic light in front.
Even in the driver's cab there is a vigilance handle for checking, and if the driver stops responding to the traffic lights, it gives a sound, and sometimes a light signal, and the person must, having quickly responded, press the vigilance handle. If this is not the case, emergency braking will automatically occur.