Climate is an important factor in life on earth. In most areas of the planet, natural conditions are quite acceptable for a comfortable stay of people and animals. But there are places where scientists have recorded critical temperatures of heat and cold - the "poles of cold and heat."
Poles of cold
"Poles of cold" are those places on earth where the lowest temperature was set. These are the Vostok station in Antarctica (Southern Hemisphere), the city of Verkhoyansk and the village of Oymyakon (Northern Hemisphere).
The Vostok station is located on a large ice dome at an altitude of 3488 meters above sea level. Average winter temperatures are 60 ° C, summer temperatures are 20 ° C.
In July 1983, the lowest temperature was officially recorded - 83 ° C. And in 1997, unofficially, scientists witnessed a decrease in temperature to - 91 ° C.
Living conditions at the station are more than harsh. The polar night lasts 5 months in a row - i.e. almost half a year. People suffer from high rarefaction and lack of oxygen. You can't move fast here, let alone run, you can't breathe deeply. Sometimes polar explorers cannot go outside for more than 10 minutes a day.
All residential buildings are covered with ice and ice build-ups. Felt boots are worn here on the platform - the sole is sewn in several layers so that the feet do not freeze. Water is obtained by melting snow. To do this, they saw it and put it in special snow melters.
The station can be reached by plane, but only in summer, and the rest of the time there are sled-caterpillar trains.
Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon are located on the other hemisphere. And the lowest temperatures here are slightly different from the Vostok station. In February 1933, the temperature was recorded in Oymyakon - 67, 7 ° C. The same temperature was established in Verkhoyansk back in 1885.
Pole of heat on earth
There are many hot places on planet Earth. There are even ratings for the warmest places on different continents. Of course, the hottest is Africa. But officially, the hot spot is the famous Death Valley in the United States.
Death Valley is located in the Mojave Desert in the Great Basin, California. The lowest point in North America is located here - 86 meters below sea level. In 1913, the highest air temperature on earth was officially recorded in this place - + 56, 7оС.
The city of Al-Aziziya in Libya (Africa) is also considered a hot spot. Here on September 13, 1922, the temperature was set to + 57, 7оС. And the record for the hottest average annual temperatures was broken by the village of Dallol in Ethiopia in the 60s. Average annual temperatures were recorded here - + 34оС.