Diamonds are also called diamonds, about 20 tons of these gemstones are mined annually in the world with a total value of almost 7 billion dollars. However, the process of diamond formation is still mysterious.
Theories of diamond formation
A diamond in Russia is called a diamond, which is given a shape that reveals all the brilliance and beauty of the stone. There are not only transparent diamonds, if there are other minerals in the impurity of the diamond, then the stone acquires green, yellow or blue hues.
Scientists have proven that diamonds are formed in the mantle of our Earth, at a depth of almost 100 kilometers. There they crystallize under great pressure, take shape, and then they, together with the "Kimberlite" pipes, break through to the surface of the Earth. However, scientists can only predict exactly how diamond crystallization occurs, why it occurs, there are more questions than answers in this topic. For example, why diamonds are contained in only 5% of these "Kimberlite" pipes.
According to geologists, diamonds are formed from soot and graphite, which are under high pressure and at the highest temperatures. In terms of chemical composition, graphite, soot and diamond are composed of carbon, that is, diamond is graphite, only in a different state. However, geologists have big questions about the presence of graphite in magma, since many studies have not shown even a small amount of the mineral at a depth of 100 kilometers. However, in 1969 the Russian scientist B. Deryagin synthesized diamond from a compound of carbon and hydrogen - methane. It turns out that diamonds can be obtained from methane under much lower pressure than from graphite, and the temperature required for the reaction is 1000 degrees Celsius, which is quite realistic.
The weight of diamonds is measured in carats. One carat is equal to 0.2 grams.
Shape and cut of diamonds
Such stones do not have a specific shape or size, they simply amaze with their diversity. Often, a small scattering of stones grows together, forming beautiful diamond laces. One diamond usually weighs less than 15 carats, that is, less than 8 grams.
One of the most famous and largest diamonds is the Regen diamond, which was found back in 1701. It weighs 140 carats and is kept in the Louvre.
Diamond lovers collect whole collections of different diamonds, colored diamonds, stones of different cuts. Collectors know and understand over 20 diamond cuts. Recently, brillianites or brillianites have become popular (each company names the brand in its own way) - fakes of diamonds, cut for diamonds. Such stones really shine brightly in the sun, they are very similar to diamonds, but much cheaper.