A trademark is a legally certified designation that serves to individualize goods, legal entities or individual entrepreneurs. The graphic representation of a trademark is called a logo. The emblem is called a conditional image of an idea.
What is an emblem
In a nutshell, an emblem (from Old Greek ἔμβλημα "insert") is an image that expresses a certain idea. Historically, the emblem originated in the ancient Greek city-states as an insert-decoration on the shield or helmet of warriors. In Rome, she already indicated the status and social position or belonging to one or another legion. Today, emblems are commonly used for two purposes, namely designation and protection. Emblems are widely used in the designation of power structures, as well as in heraldry.
Sometimes the graphic image of the emblem is called a logo, this is accepted in cases where the emblem also acts as a trademark registered for profit. The designers design the emblem itself, not the emblem logo. The essence of an emblem as a concept is always an idea. For example, a simple Red Cross emblem shows that people from this organization are Christian and help all people, regardless of worldview, religion or skin color.
There are certain rules governing the emblems of international organizations such as the Red Cross. During armed conflicts, the protective emblem should be only red and only on a white background.
During the escalation of any conflict, the Red Cross helps the victims of both warring parties. Some Islamic countries found the international designation of the red cross offensive. This is how the emblem of the Red Crescent was born.
The difference between a logo and a brand name
Often a logo is completely identified with a brand (trade) mark, which is not entirely true. A trademark is a trademark legally certified and registered with the relevant state authorities, to which the owner has exclusive intellectual and other rights.
In Russian legislation, there is no concept of a "trademark", but only a "trademark", by which is meant, among other things, its graphic image, that is, the logo itself.
The logo is a graphic image of a trademark (from ancient Greek λόγος - word + τύπος - imprint). It is usually depicted as a stylized image of letters or as an ideogram. It would be more correct to say “our design firm has developed a logo for the company's trademark” than to say “developed a logo for the company”. That is, if we summarize the difference between a logo and a brand name, we can say this: a brand (trade) mark is a legal concept, and a logo is more of a design one. Therefore, a lawyer can register a trademark, and a designer can develop a good logo.