A forensic medical examination (or forensic examination) is carried out by a specialist expert. It consists in a medical examination of the victims. It can only be carried out in specialized institutions. The forensic examination of victims is carried out in special outpatient clinics, clinics or hospitals. And also in the premises of the investigation and court authorities.
A forensic scientist is a person with a medical education specializing in forensic medical examination. He must also have a corresponding certificate. A forensic expert can be on the staff of a public or private institution carrying out forensic activities. In accordance with the law, the expert bears criminal responsibility for the reliability of the research results.
The main types of forensic medical examination
There are the following types of forensic medical examination:
- in relation to living persons (in the presence of damage, determine their nature, mechanism of receipt, age, severity, etc.);
- examination of corpses (in order to establish the cause and prescription of death);
- chemical and toxicological (in this case, the presence of various chemicals in the organs is established);
- biological (for example, when establishing relationship);
- histological (punctures are taken for it to determine the presence of pathologies);
- medico-forensic (traceological, micrological, etc.);
- medical documents (examination of "medical errors").
If it is necessary to resolve issues requiring medical knowledge during the consideration of the materials of a criminal case, a forensic expert is also involved. For example, the victim has recovered or the injuries have disappeared. Most often, a repeated or additional examination is carried out in relation to the case materials.
Carrying out a forensic examination
The time during which the examination will be carried out depends on what kind of research is needed. A referral for examination can be issued by a court, investigation or prosecutor's office. It happens that you need to carry out additional tests. For example, when doubts arise about the results of the first examination. Accordingly, the period of its repeated implementation increases.
The examination period depends on the number of experts involved. Expertise can be commission and complex. In both cases, a number of experts take part in it. The opinions of two different experts may not coincide. Then each of them issues its own conclusion.
The result of the forensic examination is the conclusion. It contains the scope of the analyzes and conclusions. If a conclusion is made common to all members of the commission, it should be specified in detail by whom and how it was established.
The group of experts is recruited from highly qualified specialists. These can be representatives of various specialties: surgeons, anesthesiologists, traumatologists, etc. Persons who have previously participated in the study cannot take part in it again.
Usually, the examination of the corpse and material evidence takes the longest time. The first is prescribed in relation to people who died a violent death. They can also prescribe a forensic examination if a patient who was on treatment suddenly died.