The yield depends largely on the fertility of the soil. A number of factors affect fertility. Since soil is a complex system, it is necessary to maintain a balance of its components.
Factors on which fertility depends
The soil is a complex biological ecosystem, consisting of many components, which determines the rate of growth and development of the crop. Various processes take place in the soil, the interdependence of which is the key to its fertility.
The factors that affect fertility are as follows:
- natural soil structure (chemical composition) and specific features of the climatic zone;
- groundwater and their location relative to the soil;
- the level of pollution of the environment and soil in a given area of the area;
- the climate of the area.
The chemical composition of the soil is essential for its fertility. The presence or absence of certain elements can affect the quality of the crop in the most detrimental way. The soil should have a sufficient amount of nitrogen, potassium and the main component - humus.
Humus is an organic soil component that is the main food for plants. Fertility largely depends on the presence and quantity of this component. The rich soil contains 8 to 12% humus. Soil with a high nutrient content is dark in color and is ideal for plant root systems.
The presence of salts and microelements in the soil is also important. The chemical composition largely depends on the climatic zone. However, an excessive amount of minerals and trace elements can adversely affect the condition of plants, therefore, enriching the soil, it is necessary to calculate correctly and not overdo it with the amount of minerals.
Physical properties are equally important, which include the ability to absorb and retain moisture, as well as porosity, which is very important for the aeration process. The temperature of the fertile soil should exceed 10 ° C at a depth of up to 20 cm, the moisture content should be at least 60%. The amount of oxygen is not less than 12%, and preferably up to 25%.
In many ways, the fertility of mail depends on the vital activity and activity of microorganisms, which contribute to the formation of humus and the processing of chemical elements into a form available for absorption by plants.
How to make the soil fertile
To enrich the soil, it is necessary to periodically feed it, fertilize it and conduct monitoring in a timely manner. It is useful to alternate planting of different crops, as well as to give the soil a rest, without planting anything for several years in a row. The fact is that some plants and crops greatly impoverish the soil, sucking out all the nutrients from it, so the earth needs rest and restoration.