The invention of the ship expanded human capabilities, allowing them to develop new territories lying far beyond the water. Throughout the history of mankind, many types of ships have been created. In the 19th century, sailing ships gradually replaced steamships, then motor ships and even nuclear-powered ships appeared. However, the main structural elements of the ships remained unchanged.
Any ship has a hull. It defines the appearance and contours of the vessel. In the hull, the rear part is distinguished - the stern, the bow, one or even several decks and the hold. Deck superstructures are located at the ends of the ship. In the front there is a tank, and in the back there is a bottom, which is often covered with a thick awning on sailing ships. Ships, built according to the scheme of catamarans, have two separate hulls connected to each other in a rigid way or by means of hinged structures.
The inner space of the hull is divided by bulkheads into several longitudinal and transverse parts. To make the ship unsinkable, the compartments are most often made sealed and independent from each other. If the ship gets a hole, then water will accumulate in only one of the compartments, the rest will provide the ship with buoyancy. Powerful pumps are provided for pumping water in every compartment of a modern ship.
A ship in the water is conventionally divided into two parts - surface and underwater. The line along which the surface of the water touches the hull is called the waterline. Usually, a cargo waterline is applied to the skin. It denotes the maximum draft that is allowed when the vessel is fully loaded. On the outside, on the underwater part of the ship, the propeller and rudder are located. Inside the underwater part, the engine room and cargo rooms are most often arranged.
The bow of the ship provides an easy ride when moving at significant speeds. The elongated and pointed bow of the vessel allows you to effortlessly cut the water column. The nose on both sides of the hull goes into the side. That part of it, which is installed above the deck, is called a bulwark. In the rear of the hull, both sides end in the stern.
The upper part of the ship's hull is called the deck. Various deck structures are installed on it; on sailing ships masts and corresponding equipment for sail control are erected here. The number of masts on large sailing ships of the past centuries reached three or even five. Rigging systems are used to securely hold the masts in an upright position and set and retract the sails.
A horizontally positioned deck usually consists of a base (set) and an upper deck. If the ship has several decks, then they usually have their own purpose. Especially large vessels can have strong double decks and the same massive double bottom. This design allows you to protect the vessel from overloading during strong seas at sea.